SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT GLOSSARY 

A

Active Travel


Non-motorised travel, such as walking, cycling, running, push-scooters or wheelchairs.




Arriva Click


The current Watford Borough Council Demand Responsive Transport scheme.





B

Bike Share Scheme


A pool of bikes parked in bays on public land, owned by a local authority or private company, available for individual hire on a short term basis by members.




Beryl Bikes


The current Watford Borough Council bike share scheme provider.





C

Car Club


A pool of cars owned by a local authority or private company, stored on streets or in car parks, available for individual hire on a short term basis by members.




Carbon Neutral


A combination of reducing and offsetting emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon resulting in no net carbon release.




Car-lite development


Development with minimal or no car parking, where access is primarily via sustainable modes of travel, such as walking, cycling and taking public transport.




Car Sharing/Pooling


The sharing of car journeys with shared origins or destinations so that more than one person travels in the car, reducing the number of vehicles completing the same trip.




Climate Emergency Declaration


An action taken by the Councils and Governments around the world to acknowledge that humanity is in a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it.




Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL)


A charge levied on new developments to support infrastructure delivery. Introduced by the Planning Act (2008).




Construction Management Plan


A plan to address procedures and methods of construction prior to commencement.




Controlled Parking Zone (CPZ)


Area in which parking is limited, based upon certain restrictions. Most commonly allowing only residents or valid permit holders to park during certain time periods.





D

Delivery and Servicing Plan


A plan to manage logistics of how to provide services such as waste collection and freight delivery to a development.




Demand Responsive Transport / Transit (DRT)


Flexible form of buses that vary routes and timetable according to demand, passengers book spaces to join at an agreed time and places as required.




Development Contributions


Contribution in the form of money, land or other means collected from developers to deliver infrastructure. This could be through the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) or a Section 106 Agreement as well as onsite contributions.





E

E-cargo bikes


A form of cycle which is able to transport large or heavy loads through having electric pedal assistance.




Electric Vehicle (EV)


A vehicle that uses electric motors for part or all of its propulsion.





F

Freight Consolidation Centres


Locations used to group loads from multiple sources before final delivery in smaller vehicles allowing better co-ordination of deliveries, use of greener vehicles for the final delivery, and an overall reduction in freight trips.




Future Mobility


A rethinking of how transportation will look in the future, reflecting trends such as environmental sustainability, automation, smart technology and the sharing economy.





G

Green Infrastructure


Networks of green space which are multifunctional and offer environmental and social benefits for the surrounding area. This can include parks and gardens, *green corridors, natural areas, amenity spaces and allotments. *A green corridor is a strip of land designed to feature significant levels of plants and trees that links between other green and open spaces, providing habitats for wildlife and sustainable routes for people.




Greenhouse Gases


Gases which trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere, contributing to increasing temparatures.




Green Corridor


A strip of land designed to feature significant levels of plants and trees that links between other green and open spaces, providing habitats for wildlife and sustainable routes for people.





H

Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan 4 (LTP)


Document setting out how transport can help deliver a positive future vision for Hertfordshire, providing for safe and efficient travel and considering how future planning decisions and emerging technology might affect the way that transport needs to be provided in the longer term.




HERT (Hertfordshire - Essex Rapid Transit)


A new public transport system proposed by Hertfordshire and Essex County Councils to improve east-west movement and support growth in housing and employment. The system would take the form of a Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system, which uses rail tracks and train carriages to carry people in greater numbers than a typical private car and provides a greater convenience and reliability than a traditional bus service.





L

Local Centres


An area including shops and facilities for local people.




Local Cycle and Walking Implementation Plan


Strategic approach to identifying cycling and walking improvements required at the local level, enabling a long-term approach to developing local cycling and walking networks.





M

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)


Urban transport system capable of carrying large numbers of passengers quickly. Encompasses both highway and rail transport systems. Potential system currently under investigation for Hertfordshire (see HERT definition).




Micromobility


Small, lightweight vehicles operating at low speeds and driven by users personally. Micromobility devices include bicycles, Ebikes, electric scooters, and electric skateboards.




Mixed-use Development


A development that is comprised of different land uses, such as employment and residential uses.




Mobility as a Service (MaaS)


Single digital channel that enables users to plan, book, and pay for multiple types of transport services in a single place.




Modal Shift


The growth in use of one or more modes of transport at the expense of others.




Modeshift STARS


An accreditation scheme supported by the Department for Transport which recognises schools, businesses and other organisations that have shown excellence in supporting cycling, walking and other forms of sustainable and active travel through the development and implementation of effective Travel Plans.





O

On-demand transport


See Demand Responsive Transport / Transit (DRT).





P

Parcel lockers


A unit that is placed in publically accessible areas which are used for parcel and package deliveries, offering a convenient alternative to home-based deliveries.




Park and Ride


A system found in some towns or cities where you can park your car cheaply in an out of town area and take a bus or other form of public transport into the centre.




Parklets


A small seating area or green space created as a public amenity on or alongside a pavement, especially in a former roadside parking space.




Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)


A public transport mode featuring small automated vehicles operating on a network of specially built guideways.




Place Making


The process of creating high quality accessible places that people want to live, work, play and learn in.




Planning Condition


These can be attached to a planning permission which require a developer to address specific issues.




Public Realm


Parts of the town that are available for everyone to use, including streets, public squares and open spaces.





R

Rat running


The action by motorists of using residential side streets or other smaller roads as part of a route in order to avoid heavy traffic or traffic signals on main roads. The practice is often opposed by local residents who are affected by the resultant impacts, including increased traffic noise, pollution from exhausts and road safety risks





S

School Street


Street that is closed outside a school to motor traffic, either temporarily during school drop off and pick-up hours, or permanently.




Section 106 Agreement


A reference to Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act (1990) allows a Local Planning Authority to enter a legally-binding agreement or planning obligation with a landowner in association with the granting of planning permission. These agreements are a way of delivering or addressing matters that are necessary to make a development acceptable in planning terms. They are used to support the provision of services and infrastructure




Severance


The dividing effect on people and communities caused by being unable to easily move from one area to another due to a physical barrier, either natural or man-made. For example a busy road, rail line or river.




Smart Mobility


The connection of various elements of technology and transport to provide an integrated approach to transport planning whereby users can chose the combination of private, public or shared transport that best suits each journey they make, enabling Mobility as a Service.




South West Herts Growth and Transport Plan (SWHGTP)


Supporting strategy to the Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan 4, providing detailed approach to delivering its policies and objectives.




Sustainable


Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.




Sustainable Travel Town


A concept whereby the perception to all highway users in an particular town is that pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users will have a greater priority than they do at present. This will be achieved through undertaking comprehensive packages of schemes and behaviour change initiatives aimed at encouraging significant modal shift to non-car modes and reduction in single occupancy car use.





T

Transport Assessment


A comprehensive review that sets out transport issues, and proposed mitigations for these, relating to a proposed development. The assessment also identifies measures to improve accessibility and safety for different travel modes, including walking and cycling.




Travel Plan


A long-term management strategy for a site that seeks to encourage sustainable travel.





W

Watford smartphone app / travelWatford


Journey planning app for Watford that allows people to choose the best options for a given journey based on cost, waiting time and environmental impact.